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For easy transportation, they pre-packaged them in bulbs that kept them intact. Their population grew steadily by the 1920s until Jan de Graaf, a lily enthusiast, formed a breeding program that led to the birth of various popular hybrids you have grown to love.



Given the hundreds of hybrids and parent lily flower species, botanists have a simple system to help them identify and distinguish particular types. The plants are divided into nine divisions according to genes and mode of hybridization.2

Trumpet lilies come first to mind when thinking of classic lily shapes. They are also called the Aurelian lilies and have a rich scent and colorful, long-lasting petals without spots and star shapes at the throat.

Red flowers will always be stunning, and you can have the Scarlet Cherrywood lily growing in your home. You can identify it by its colorful dual-colored flowers that contrast well with the green leaves in the background.17

Lilium (/ˈlɪliəm/ LIL-ee-əm)[3] is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. They are the true lilies. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the northern hemisphere and their range is temperate climates and extends into the subtropics. Many other plants have "lily" in their common names, but do not belong to the same genus and are therefore not true lilies.

The botanic name Lilium is the Latin form and is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is derived from the Greek word λείριον leírion, generally assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily.[23][24][25] The word was borrowed from Coptic (dial. Fayyumic) hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt "flower".[citation needed] Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean.[citation needed] Ancient Greek: κρῖνον, krīnon, was used by the Greeks, albeit for lilies of any color.[26]

The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants, often with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily, fire lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of the valley, daylily, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, and others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle.[27]

The proliferation of deer (e.g. Odocoileus virginianus) in North America, mainly due to factors such as the elimination of large predators for human safety, is responsible there for a downturn in lily populations in the wild and is a threat to garden lilies as well.[28] Fences as high as 8 feet may be required to prevent them from consuming the plants, an impractical solution for most wild areas.[29]

Many species are widely grown in the garden in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions.[30] Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed. They are used in herbaceous borders, woodland and shrub plantings, and as patio plants. Some lilies, especially Lilium longiflorum, form important cut flower crops or potted plants. These are forced to flower outside of the normal flowering season for particular markets; for instance, Lilium longiflorum for the Easter trade, when it may be called the Easter lily.

Lilies are usually planted as bulbs in the dormant season. They are best planted in a south-facing (northern hemisphere), slightly sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2 times the height of the bulb (except Lilium candidum which should be planted at the surface). Most prefer a porous, loamy soil, and good drainage is essential. Most species bloom in July or August (northern hemisphere). The flowering periods of certain lily species begin in late spring, while others bloom in late summer or early autumn.[31] They have contractile roots which pull the plant down to the correct depth, therefore it is better to plant them too shallowly than too deep. A soil pH of around 6.5 is generally safe. Most grow best in well-drained soils, and plants are watered during the growing season. Some species and cultivars have strong wiry stems, but those with heavy flower heads are staked to stay upright.[32][33]

Aphids may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle can cause serious damage to the stems and leaves. The scarlet beetle lays its eggs and completes its life cycle only on true lilies (Lilium) and fritillaries (Fritillaria).[51] Oriental, rubrum, tiger and trumpet lilies as well as Oriental trumpets (orienpets) and Turk's cap lilies and native North American Lilium species are all vulnerable, but the beetle prefers some types over others. The beetle could also be having an effect on native Canadian species and some rare and endangered species found in northeastern North America.[52] Daylilies (Hemerocallis, not true lilies) are excluded from this category. Plants can suffer from damage caused by mice, deer and squirrels. Slugs,[53] snails and millipedes attack seedlings, leaves and flowers.

Brown spots on damp leaves may signal an infection of Botrytis elliptica, also known as Lily blight, lily fire, and botrytis leaf blight.[54] Various viral diseases can cause mottling of leaves and stunting of growth, including lily curl stripe, ringspot, and lily rosette virus.[55]

A comparison of meiotic crossing-over (recombination) in lily and mouse led, in 1977, to the conclusion that diverse eukaryotes share a common pattern of meiotic crossing-over.[59] Lilium longiflorum has been used for studying aspects of the basic molecular mechanism of genetic recombination during meiosis.[60][61]

Lilium brownii var. viridulum, known as 百合 (pak hop; pinyin: bǎi hé; Cantonese Yale: baak hap; lit. 'hundred united'), is one of the most prominent edible lilies in China. Its bulbs are large in size and not bitter. They were even exported and sold in the San Francisco Chinatown in the 19th century, available both fresh and dry.[67] A landrace called 龍牙百合 (pinyin: lóng yá bǎi hé; lit. 'dragon-tooth lily') mainly cultivated in Hunan and Jiangxi is especially renowned for its good-quality bulbs.[68]

The lily bulb or yuri-ne is sometimes used in Japanese cuisine.[c][81] It may be most familiar in the present day as an occasional ingredient (具, gu) in the chawan-mushi (savoury egg custard),[82] where a few loosened scales of this optional ingredient are found embedded in the "hot pudding" of each serving.[83][84] It could also be used as an ingredient in a clear soup or suimono [ja].[85][86]

There is also the yuri-yōkan, one recipe of which calls for combining measures of yuri starch with agar dissolved in water and sugar.[91] This was a specialty of Hamada, Shimane,[92] and the shop Kaisei-dō (開盛堂) established in 1885 became famous for it.[93][94] Because a certain Viscount Jimyōin wrote a waka poem about the confection which mentioned hime-yuri "princess lily",[f] one source stated that the hime-yuri (usually taken to mean L. concolor) had to have been used,[93] but another source points out that the city of Hamada lies back to back with across a mountain range with Fuchu, Hiroshima which is renowned for its production of yama-yuri (L. auratum).[90][g]

Current Japanese governmental sources (c. 2005) list the following lily species as prominent in domestic consumption:[98][99] the oni yuri or tiger lily Lilium lancifolium, the kooni yuri Lilium leichtlinii var. maximowiczii,[h] and the gold-banded white yama-yuri L. auratum.

Lilium formosanum, or Taiwanese lily, is called "the flower of broken bowl" (Chinese: 打碗花) by the elderly members of the Hakka ethnic group. They believe that because this lily grows near bodies of clean water, harming the lily may damage the environment, just like breaking the bowls that people rely on.[114] An alternative explanation is that parents convince children into not taking the lily by convincing the children that their dinner bowls may break if they destroy this flower.

In Western Christianity, Madonna lily or Lilium candidum has been associated with the Virgin Mary since at least the Medieval Era. Medieval and Renaissance depictions of the Virgin Mary, especially at the Annunciation, often show her with these flowers. Madonna lilies are also commonly included in depictions of Christ's resurrection. Lilium longiflorum, the Easter lily, is a symbol of Easter, and Lilium candidum, the Madonna lily, carries a great deal of symbolic value in many cultures. See the articles for more information.

Lilium mackliniae is the state flower of Manipur. Lilium michauxii, the Carolina lily, is the official state flower of North Carolina. Idyllwild, California, hosts the Lemon Lily Festival, which celebrates Lilium parryi.[116] Lilium philadelphicum is the floral emblem of Saskatchewan province in Canada, and is on the flag of Saskatchewan.[117][118][119]

There are a number of popular lily species, including Orientals, Asiatics, Orienpets, and Species types. To create a sequence of Lily blooms in your garden, keep in mind that Asiatics generally flower first followed by Orienpets and then Oriental varieties.

Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.), despite the similar appearance of their flowers, are not true lilies. Daylilies have many leaves that grow from a crown, whereas true lilies generally have only one stem or shoot that grows from a bulb. Similarly, peace lilies, canna lilies, water lilies, lily-of-the-valley, and calla lilies are not true lilies either! Learn more about what makes a lily a lily. 041b061a72

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